From the Winter 2018 Issue

A (Very) Brief History of Pre-Computer Cryptography, Part 1

Adam Firestone
Editor-in-Chief | United States Cybersecurity Magazine

This is the first part of a two-part article exploring the history of pre-computer cryptography.  Part 1 will focus on the period from the birth of cryptography some 4,000 years ago to the development of early transposition and substitution ciphers.  Part 2 looks at the emergence of cryptanalysis under the Abbasid Caliphate and goes through the perfection of mechanical encryption mechanisms in the mid-20th century.


Cryptography is ubiquitous.  It underlies and supports the interdependent fabric of American society and the global commons.  We rely on cryptographic mechanisms scores of times every . . .

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