The benefits of the same software used everywhere has made our systems vulnerable to criminals and nation-state adversaries alike.
Software is vulnerable to cyber threats due to defects of design, development, and deployment. One of the many challenges posed by current software is balancing security and cost. In most cases the deployment and maintenance cost of software has trumped the cost of presenting widespread security vulnerabilities. This situation has given adversaries an enormous asymmetric advantage.
For a sophisticated adversary, crippling entire computer networks with a single exploit might be easy, but cleaning up after . . .